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William Rodriguez
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Embedded Systems: Real-Time Operating Systems F...


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Embedded Systems: Real-Time Operating Systems F...


Available system resources: Micro kernels use minimum system resources and provide limited but essential task scheduling functionality. Micro kernels generally deliver a hard real time response, and are used extensively with embedded microprocessors with limited RAM/ROM capacity, but can also be appropriate for larger embedded processor systems.


Real-time operating systems (RTOS) are used in environments where a large number of events, mostly external to the computer system, must be accepted and processed in a short time or within certain deadlines. such applications are industrial control, telephone switching equipment, flight control, and real-time simulations. With an RTOS, the processing time is measured in tenths of seconds. This system is time-bound and has a fixed deadline. The processing in this type of system must occur within the specified constraints. Otherwise, This will lead to system failure.


Multitasking operation is accomplished by scheduling processes for execution independently of each other. Each process is assigned a certain level of priority that corresponds to the relative importance of the event that it services. The processor is allocated to the highest priority processes. This type of schedule, called, priority-based preemptive scheduling is used by real-time systems. Firm Real-time Operating System: RTOS of this type have to follow deadlines as well. In spite of its small impact, missing a deadline can have unintended consequences, including a reduction in the quality of the product. Example: Multimedia applications. Advantages:


One of the earliest decision points in embedded systems design is whether the system will require real-time computing capabilities. Real-time computing describes the ability to react to inputs and deliver the prescribed output within a constrained time frame. Devices that use real-time computing are deployed in applications where their correct functioning can make the difference between life and death.


As an example, consider the airbag in a conventional family sedan. When the vehicle stops abruptly in the case of a collision, the airbag must be deployed in a split second to be effective for passengers. This means that the embedded microcontroller which controls the airbags must detect that a collision is happening and electronically trigger the release of vehicle airbags - all in just a fraction of a second. This capability is made possible by the technology of real-time computing.


In this introduction to real-time embedded systems, we'll give a high-level overview of what these unique embedded systems are, how they're designed and classified, and why their functionality is so critical in real world applications. We'll also offer some real-time embedded systems examples.


A real-time embedded system combines the technologies of embedded systems and real-time computing. To achieve the most complete and accurate description, we begin with a deeper look at the defining features of these technologies.


Embedded systems are hardware-and-software computer systems that perform a dedicated function with a larger system or device. An embedded system typically consists of a microcontroller, also called a computer-on-a-chip. Microcontrollers are equipped with a CPU, memory (RAM and ROM), I/O ports, a communication bus, timers/counters, and DAC/ADC converters.


Real-time computing describes the capability of a computing system to respond to a given input within a tightly constrained time frame. In the context of embedded systems, engineers implement real-time computing by installing a special type of operating system onto the embedded device. Operating systems can be conceptualized as the bridge between embedded hardware and software. There are two basic types for embedded engineers to choose from:


Real-time embedded systems are those that incorporate a real-time operating system, ensuring that the device can respond to sensory inpu




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