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Jordan Bennett
Jordan Bennett

Maxsea Time Zero 2 0 26



If the relative humidity is 100 percent (i.e., dewpoint temperature and actual air temperature are the same), this does NOT necessarily mean that precipitation will occur. It simply means that the maximum amount of moisture is in the air at the particular temperature the air is at. Saturation may result in fog (at the surface) and clouds aloft (which consist of tiny water droplets suspended in the air). However, for precipitation to occur, the air must be rising at a sufficient rate to enhance condensation of water vapor into liquid water droplets or ice crystals (depending on air temperature) and to promote growth of water droplets, supercooled droplets, and/or ice crystals in clouds. Droplets grow through a process called "collision-coalescence" whereby droplets of varying sizes collide and fuse together (coalesce). Ice crystal processes (including deposition and aggregation) also are important for particle growth. In thunderstorms, hail also can develop. Once the suspended precipitation particles grow to sufficient size, the air can no longer support their weight and precipitation falls from the clouds. In humid climates, thunderstorms often cause heavier rain than general wintertime rainfall since moisture content in the air typically is higher in the spring and summer, and since air usually rises at a much more rapid rate within developing thunderstorms than in general winter systems. "Cloud microphysics" is the study of droplet and ice crystal production and growth within clouds and their relationship to precipitation.




maxsea time zero 2 0 26



Keeping up to date charts is an essential element to ensure the safety of all those at sea. TZ Professional is now compatible with the official S57 formats. The official S57 charts are updated every week. These maps respect the S52 standard developed by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The iconography offers a simplified display in order to improve the readability of the marine charts on screens.


Our new technology assures the security of a route upon creation: Through color codes (green/red) it is instantaneously possible to know if the depth is sufficient for the safe passing of your boat. An automatic route wizard will provide you with information regarding to the optimal departure and arrival time, taking into account tides and currents.


The configuration of AIS can sometimes prove to be complex. Our new AIS module allows for complete configuration of all information directly within TZ Professional (Status, Destination, etc.). Furthermore, it is now possible to receive and send AIS text messages from TZ Professional. This system will allow for simplified communication, free and individual with all boats which are equipped with AIS.


TimeZero has an innovative feature that allows you to recall any track portion from your trail (which is guaranteed to be always recorded). This is a much more practical way to create a track rather than trying to remember to press the track button ON and OFF at specific times. Although the live trail display is limited to 20 days, you can use the Planning WorkSpace and the trip list to recall any trail of any trips you have done in the past.


After selecting a valid date, the chart will center automatically to the recorded location and a blue boat icon will be visible on the chart (this is the position TimeZero recorded for the selected date/time). Note that you can move the timeline at the bottom of the screen to refine the date/time until the blue boat icon is approximately at the position you wish to record the track from.


Use the tool to "cut" the track portion you want to recall by clicking on a first point to set the beginning of the track and by clicking a second time to set the end. TimeZero will then create a track automatically:


SUMMARY: Mass coral bleaching has become one of the most visible marine ecological impacts of persistently rising ocean temperatures. NOAA's satellites measure changes in the sea surface temperature (SST), in near real-time, that drive coral bleaching. Coral Reef Watch (CRW) uses this information to pinpoint areas around the world where corals are at risk for bleaching. CRW's suite of heritage global data products were produced at 0.5 degree (approximately 50km) spatial resolution twice-weekly. Data and images are available for free on our website, through the date of retirement of the 50km products.


The need for improved understanding, monitoring, and prediction of coral bleaching has become imperative. Satellite remote sensing, which provides synoptic views of the global oceans in near-real-time and monitors remote reef areas previously known only to wildlife, has become an essential tool for coral reef managers and scientists. As early as 1997, NOAA's National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) began producing web-accessible, satellite-derived, global near real-time nighttime sea surface temperature (SST) products to monitor thermal conditions conducive to coral bleaching and to assess the intensity of bleaching stress around the globe. This activity evolved into a crucial part of NOAA's Coral Reef Watch (CRW) program in 2000 (Strong et al., 2004; Liu et al., 2005). CRW's earliest "experimental" products were the outgrowth of earlier work by Goreau and Hayes (1994) and by Montgomery and Strong (1995). Between September 2002 and February 2003, after successfully providing early warnings of coral bleaching to the global coral reef community for several years, most "experimental" products were transitioned to "operational" status. These "operational" products are now supported and delivered by NESDIS on a 24-hour/7-day basis, permitting almost constant global monitoring of environmental conditions that can cause coral bleaching. This satellite thermal stress monitoring technique has been successful in now-casting coral bleaching episodes around the globe (e.g., Goreau et al., 2000; Wellington et al., 2001; Strong et al., 2002; Liu et al., 2003; Coral Reef Watch, 2003; Liu et al., 2005;Skirving et al., 2006); andEakin et al., 2010).


CRW's heritage twice-weekly global 50km satellite coral bleaching monitoring and assessment products include: SST, SST Anomaly, Coral Bleaching HotSpot, coral bleaching Degree Heating Week (DHW), Bleaching Alert Area, Virtual Stations, and a free, automated Satellite Bleaching Alert (SBA) e-mail system. These products were produced by CRW in near real-time, at 0.5-degree (approximately 50km) spatial resolution, until their retirement at NOAA.


Until January 31, 2016, CRW used data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument sensors onboard NOAA's Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) to derive its 50km satellite sea surface temperature (SST) product (discussed below). Each twice-weekly SST measurement was based on data from one AVHRR sensor onboard a single POES. However, as of February 1, 2016, and until the retirement of the 50km products on April 30, 2020, the twice-weekly 50km SST measurement was based on NOAA's operational daily global 5km Geostationary-Polar-orbiting (Geo-Polar) Blended Nighttime-only SST Analysis.


SUMMARY: The CRW heritage near real-time twice-weekly global 50km SST product was produced from nighttime-only data, to eliminate the effect of solar glare and reduce variability caused by heating during the day. Until January 31, 2016, SST data came from NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites, which measure infrared radiation from the ocean surface across the entire globe every day. As of February 1, 2016, and until the retirement of the 50km products at NOAA, the twice-weekly 50km SST measurement was based on NOAA's operationaldaily global 5km Geostationary-Polar-orbiting Blended Nighttime-only SST Analysis. The SST product discussed here was a twice-weekly composite at 0.5-degree (50km) resolution.


NOAA has been measuring SST via satellites since 1972. Monitoring of SST from earth-orbiting infrared radiometers has had a wide impact on oceanographic science. One of the principal sources of infrared data for SST measurement was the AVHRR carried on NOAA's POES satellites, beginning in 1978. AVHRR is a broad-band, four or five channel (depending on the model) scanner, sensing in the visible, near-infrared, and thermal infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The POES satellite system offers the advantage of daily global coverage, by making near-polar orbits roughly 14 times daily. In situ SSTs from buoys (drifting and moored) are used operationally to maintain accuracy of satellite SST by removing biases and compiling statistics with time (McClain et al., 1985; Strong, 1991; Montgomery and Strong, 1995; Strong et al., 2000).


Until January 31, 2016, the CRW near real-time nighttime SST product included the most recent satellite global nighttime composite AVHRR SSTs at 0.5-degree (50km) resolution, produced twice-weekly (see Introduction section for details on the update schedule). Nighttime-only satellite SST observations are used to eliminate daily warming caused by solar heating at the sea surface (primarily at the "skin" interface, 10-20 µm) during the day and to avoid contamination from solar glare. Compared with daytime SST and day-night blended SST, nighttime SST provides more conservative and stable estimates of heat stress conducive to coral bleaching. Nighttime SSTs also compare favorably with in situ SSTs at one meter depth (Montgomery and Strong, 1995). The 50km-resolution data were calculated by averaging multiple temperature observations (weighted by distance from pixel center, conditionally out to a maximum of 150km), and were based on 4km AVHRR Global Area Coverage (GAC) SST acquired daily.


With NOAA's retirement of the heritage AVHRR-based Main Unit Task (MUT) SST product in 2016, as of February 1, 2016, and until the retirement of CRW's 50km products on April 30, 2020, the twice-weekly 50km SST measurement was based on NOAA'soperationaldaily global 5km Geostationary-Polar-orbiting (Geo-Polar) Blended Nighttime-only SST Analysis.


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